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Antsiranana Province, Madagascar (-13.97458 49.23085)
Ankarana Reserve, in the northwest, was established in 1956. It is a small, partially vegetated plateau composed of 150-million-year-old middle Jurassic limestone. With an average annual rainfall of about 2,000 millimetres (79 in), the underlying rocks are susceptible to erosion, thereby producing caves and underground rivers—a karst topography. The rugged relief and the dense vegetation have helped protect the region from human intrusion. The Ankarana Reserve is an important refuge for significant populations of the crowned lemur (Eulemur coronatus), Sanford's brown lemur (Eulemur sanfordi) and other mammal species. Species of Podocarpus humbertii is found in dry lowland deciduous forest, sub-humid forest, and in wooded heath on mountain summits of gneiss and granite in the province between 1600 and 2410 metres.