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İzmit, Kocaeli, Marmara Region, Turkey (40.76538 29.94070)
The city is mostly built on hill slopes because of the cramped area, while flat plains surround the gulf, near the sea. This topographic structure divided the city into two parts. The first was created on flat plains, where the city center is. The railway and highway networks pass from this area which is close to the Sea of Marmara. The second part was built on hills, with many historic houses from the Ottoman period in the old quarters.
Mareşal Fevzi Çakmak Mahallesi, Arnavutköy, Istanbul, Marmara Region, Turkey (41.20810 28.71985)
Coordinates: 41.19531 28.70889 41.22066 28.73306 - Minimum elevation: 55 m - Maximum elevation: 188 m - Average elevation: 105 m